[ Complete Guide ] How to start mushroom farming in india

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How to start mushroom farming in india
How to start mushroom farming in india
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Mushrooms have been used worldwide for thousands of years as both food and medicine, they are a rich source of nutrition and make up a large part of healthy foods. Mushrooms are very low in fat, especially compared to protein and carbohydrates. And this fatty part consists mainly of unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, which may be an ideal food for a healthy heart and cardiovascular function, mushroom consumption was limited to specific regions and regions of the world but due to globalization different cultures Communication between the two countries and increasing consumerism has ensured the reach of mushrooms in all sectors, mushrooms are rapidly finding their way into various culinary and everyday uses, the current consumption trend reflects the growing opportunities in mushroom exports.

Mushroom Farming In India

The two most common species of mushroom growing in India are white button mushroom and oyster mushroom, most of the white button mushroom production in our country is seasonal, it is cultivated in a traditional way, generally, unpasteurized waste manure is used. , therefore the yield is very low, however, the yield of mushrooms has increased in the last few years as a result of the introduction of better agro-technical practices, the cultivation of common white button mushroom requires technical skill, due to, among other factors, this The system requires moisture, two different temperatures i.e. 220 to 280 degrees Celsius for breeding or shoot growth, 150 to 180 degrees for breeding stage, 85 to 95 percent humidity and adequate ventilation during the substrate, which are sterilized and can be easily contaminated if not grown under extremely sterile conditions, so evaporation at 100 degrees is more acceptable.

Pleurotus is the scientific name of oyster mushroom, in many parts of India, it is known as Dhingri, there are many species of this mushroom, Pleurotus asteriatus, P. Sajor-cashew, P. florida, P. sapidus, P. flabellatus , P. eryngii and many other edible species, mushroom growing is a profession that requires perseverance, patience and intelligent care, and a skill that can only be developed through intelligent experience.

Pleurotus mushrooms require a temperature of 200 to 300 degrees Celsius for the budding growth and breeding stage, the suitable time for cultivation at high altitudes from 1100 to 1500 meters above mean sea level is from March to October, 600 to 600 degrees above mean sea level. February to May and September to November at mid altitude at 1100 m and October to March at low altitude 600 m below sea level.

Essential goods

  • Paddy Straws – Fresh golden yellow rice straws without mold, which have been kept in a dry place, protected from rain.
  • Plastic sheet with a standard thickness of 400 gauge – 1 sq.m. to make a block. Need a plastic sheet.
  • Wooden mold – 45*30*15 cm Wooden molds of size 44*29 cm, none of which have ends or bottoms. Have a different wooden cover of the dimension of
  • Gandara or straw cutter for cutting straws.
  • At least two drums to boil the straws.
  • Jute rope, coconut rope, or plastic ropes.
  • sacks of sacks
  • Span or mushroom bacteria can be obtained from Assistant Pathologist, Mushroom Development Center for each block.
  • a sprayer.
  • Straw storage shed 10*8 m. of size.

Process Composting

Any agricultural by-products such as wheat, maize, paddy and rice, corn stubble, any sugarcane, or any other cellulose waste can be used to make compost, wheat straw must be freshly harvested. And it should be of shining golden color and it has been kept away from rain, these straws are about 5 to 8 cm. Must be in long pieces, otherwise a stack made from tall straws will be less dense, which can lead to improper fermentation, conversely, too short straws will make the stack too dense, which will not allow enough oxygen to reach the middle of the stack will result in anaerobic fermentation.

Wheat straw or all of the above ingredients contain cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which are used as carbon for mushroom fungal growth, all of which are necessary to ensure proper aeration for the formation of microflora during composting. It also provides the physical framework for the necessary substrates, rice and corn straws are very soft, they degrade quickly during composting and absorb more water than wheat straws, hence the use of these substrates Attention should be paid to adjustments between the amount of water used, the time of inversion and the rate and type of supplements given, since the by-products used in composting contain sufficient amounts of nitrogen and other components required for the fermentation process. does not occur in this mixture is supplemented with nitrogen and carbohydrates to initiate this process.

spawning

Spawning is a mixture of eggs for maximum and timely production, the maximum dose for eggs is between 0.5 and 0.75 percent of the fresh weight of the compost, lower rates will result in less expansion of the mycelium and increased opportunities for diseases and rivals, Higher rates will increase the cost of spawning and higher rates of spawning sometimes result in exceptional heat of the compost, with a maximum temperature of 230 to (+) (-) 20 C for A. biporus. The relative humidity in the yield chamber should be between 85 to 90 percent at the time of oviposition.

Harvesting

Mushrooms begin to form primordia 3 to 4 days after the bag is opened, mature mushrooms are ready for harvesting in another 2 to 3 days, an average biologically effective load of freshly harvested mushrooms that can be treated with air dry substrate. the split may be between 80 and 150 percent and sometimes more, to cut mushrooms they are caught by the water and lightly twisted and pulled, not using a knife Should, mushrooms keep in the refrigerator for 3 to 6 days.

Cube making room

An ideal room R.C.C. Flooring should be of the skylight and dry, to keep the wooden structure, cube and other RCC. 2 cm high platform should be made inside the chamber for the platform, it should be as per the need to take out the pasteurized bags of straw, the materials which are required to make the cube should be kept inside the chamber, to prepare the cube Only persons with disabilities should be allowed inside the room.

lift room

Room for the handling of eggs This room should be RCC Bhawan or Assam Vism room and three levels should be made of bamboo almirah with clean holes to keep the blocks, the first level is 100 cm from the ground. above and the second level should be at least 60 cm. Must be high.

harvest room

An Ideal Home/Room R.C.C. The building will have proper insulation and provision for cooling and heating of the room, however, indigenous low-cost houses have been recommended using locally available materials like bamboo, tapper and mud plaster, mud, and cow dung. Split bamboo walls can be made with a similar mixture of

A second wall is built around the house to provide a raw insulation system, with a gap of 15 cm between the first and the second wall, earthen plaster should be done on the outer side of the outer wall, between the two walls The air space in the room will act as a heat insulator, as air is a poor conductor of heat, even better insulation can be provided if the space between the walls is filled with well-dried 8A thatch, The floor of the house should preferably be of cement, but where this is not possible, well ground and plastered earthen floor will suffice.

However, more care has to be taken in case of earthen floors, the roof should be made of thick thatched roofs or preferably of cement sheets, a false roof is necessary to avoid contamination of unnecessary materials from thatch roofing, other than at the entrance Provision should also be made for skylights both above and below the age and rear of the room for the entry and exit of air in the room, The house and the classroom should be of vertical and transverse bamboo poles, which are suitable for the incubation period. After the sections are required to be hung, the transverse pillars can be arranged in a 3 tier system in the form of heating almirahs, the pillars should be preferably 60 cm away from the walls and in the middle of each row of the three tiers, a distance of 1 cm Minimum space to be maintained is 3.0*2.5*2.0 m. The harvest room will accommodate 35 to 40 cubes.

Process

Cut the straw into 3 to 5 cm long pieces with a hand machine and fill it in the sackcloth, boil water in a drum, when the water starts boiling, put the sackcloth with the straw in boiling water and 15 Boil for 20 minutes after that remove the pheri from the drum and let it sit for 8 to 10 hours so that the excess water drains out and let the bran cool down, taking care not to open the bag till the block is made. The desired moisture content of the bran can be tested by squeezing the bran between the palms and making sure that no water droplets come out of the bran.

Another method of pasteurizing the bran is steaming, this method requires a slight change in the drum, make a small hole in the lid of the drum and seal the lid with a rubber tube while the bran is boiled, into pieces. First soak the bran done and excess water is removed, put some stones in the drum and pour water up to the level of the stone, boil the wet bran by placing it in the bamboo basket and keep the basket on top of the stone inside the drum, Close the lid of the drum and seal the name of the lid with a rubber tube, the steam generated by the boiled water will pass through the bran to pasteurize it, after boiling transfer the bran to a previously disinfected sack and Leave it to cool for 8 to 10 hours.

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